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London startup Blockchain raises $40 million in fresh funding, Reuters

London startup Blockchain raises $40 million in fresh funding

SAN FRANCISCO (Reuters) – London-based startup Blockchain has raised $40 million (31.Five million pounds) in a fresh round of funding as the software company rails a wave of enthusiasm for digital currency technology.

The financing round, the largest for a financial technology company since Britain’s vote last year to leave the European Union, was led by the venture capital arm of Alphabet Inc ( GOOGL.O ) and Lakestar, Blockchain said on Thursday.

Nokota Management and Digital Currency Group also participated in the financing round, which boosted Blockchain’s total funding to more than $70 million

Tom Hulme, general playmate at Alphabet’s venture rigid GV, said the rock-hard invested because “the rhythm of innovation in the digital currency space is unmatched.”

Founded in 2011, Blockchain makes software that permits consumers and businesses to make transactions using digital currencies such as bitcoin. The rock-hard is named after the internet platform that records and validates transactions inbetween two parties without relying on an intermediary such as a bank.

Co-founder and Chief Executive Peter Smith said that, as of March, the company was completing the equivalent of $Two.Five billion in transactions on a monthly basis through its consumer virtual wallet product.

“Anybody with a reasonable capability to use a smartphone can use it,” Smith said. “My grandmother uses our product today.”

The growing acceptance and adoption of digital financial products has helped startups like Blockchain attract investor attention.

Last week, American International Group Inc ( AIG.N ) announced a blockchain-based insurance product.

Bank of America, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, Wells Fargo and other banks have invested in blockchain startups, and many will roll out commercial blockchain products this year.

In the very first quarter, blockchain startups raised a total of $141 million from investors, a fifty seven percent increase over the fourth quarter but an eighteen percent drop from the very first quarter of 2016, according to data provider CB Insights.

Some skeptics say blockchain will never be adopted broadly or pose a threat to traditional banks, while others point to the volatility of bitcoin, the digital currency based on the technology.

While far from mainstream, digital currency has liked growing popularity that Smith attributes to the instability of traditional currencies in places such as Brazil, and political uncertainty in Britain and the United States.

The day after Donald Trump was elected U.S. president, Smith said, Blockchain had the second-highest number of fresh users sign up in a single day.

“In you’re in an environment of rapidly deteriorating geopolitical stability,” Smith said, “you are open to fresh ideas and fresh products.”

(1 British pound = $1.2686)

Reporting by Heather Somerville; Editing by Bill Rigby

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It’s Time to Switch to Blockchain-Based Email Systems – Bitcoin News

It’s Time to Switch to Blockchain-Based Email Systems

Running email systems on Bitcoin’s blockchain technology is becoming increasingly imperative, as current email services are cumbersome and no longer secure. Indeed, email service providers are using obsolete technology that has become too vulnerable to ever-more sophisticated hackers.

Substitute Outdated Email Systems With Blockchain-Based Email

After suffering the largest data breach in history, Yahoo is now urging its users to switch their passwords. However, switching passwords is an almost futile exercise. Actually, experts warn that switching passwords frequently might be counterproductive.

To improve email systems while protecting user account data requires a radical switch of technology.

Fortunately, a few startups are already doing that. They are converting email systems using Fourth Industrial Revolution technology.

For example, John McAfee Swiftmail is a mail system that runs on Bitcoin’s blockchain technology. Two hundred fifty six bit, end-to-end encryption protects Swiftmail data and renders data interception futile, claims the company.

“John McAfee Swiftmail is a decentralized, peer-to-peer, proof-of-work, encrypted mail system that uses bitcoin technology to substitute email. A Swiftmail wallet address looks like this: ab99b776de244fe0f70f229921517829,” explains its website.

Cryptamail is another decentralized email system that runs on blockchain technology. Because the blockchain stores the messages, “there is no central point that stores your messages, so there is nowhere to steal or even submit a request for your private data,” affirms its website.

Most Famous Data Breach Ever

Current email systems are no longer secure. Yahoo recently exposed that it had suffered the world’s biggest-ever hack, compromising more than one billion user accounts. Hackers stole Yahoo users’ crucial individual data. Most disturbingly, the stolen information could have included unencrypted or encrypted security questions and their respective answers.

Yahoo reported that the hack of one billion user accounts occurred in August 2013. However, Yahoo announced it only on December 14, 2016. Forensic experts are still investigating the mega data breach. “We have not been able to identify the intrusion associated with this theft. We believe this incident is likely distinct from the incident we disclosed on September 22, 2016,” said Bob Lord, CISO Yahoo.

“Based on the ongoing investigation, we believe an unauthorized third party accessed our proprietary code to learn how to forge cookies.”

Previously, in September, Yahoo disclosed another incident in which information pertaining to five hundred million user accounts was stolen in 2014.

Yahoo links these two major criminal incidents to “the same state-sponsored actor.”

State-Sponsored Hackers and Geopolitical Implications

News on data breaches is recurring almost daily, affecting email service providers, as well as businesses, government agencies, and political organizations. The impacts of these incidents are potentially far-reaching.

Take, for example, the latest hacking of the Democratic National Committee. Allegedly, this hacking adversely affected the outcome of the two thousand sixteen U.S. Presidential elections. Many contend that state-sponsored actors performed the hacking.

In effect, according to NBC News, “U.S. intelligence officials now believe with ‘a high level of confidence’ that Russian President Vladimir Putin became personally involved in the covert Russian campaign to interfere in the U.S. presidential election, senior U.S. intelligence officials told NBC News.”

Cyberattacks have been the norm for a long time. Now, however, the frequency, magnitude, and implications of email hackings and other malicious acts are enlargening dramatically. As a result, it is now urgent to innovate and stir toward more secure email technologies, such as those that integrate the security that the Bitcoin’s blockchain technology provides.

What do you think about running email systems on Bitcoin’s blockchain technology? Let us know in the comments below.

Photos courtesy of Shutterstock, John McAfee Swiftmail, and Cryptamail.

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Investing in blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies, Cyber Capital

investing in a digital В future

WE INVEST IN CRYPTOCURRENCIES

Cyber Capital specializes in cryptocurrency investment as we consider itВ to be one of the most significant innovations since the invention of the internet. We manage a diversified portfolio, consisting of more than fifty different types of these digital tokens. Bitcoin is well known by the larger public, which is not yet the case for most alternative cryptocurrencies. There is however a growing interest in this fresh technology, because of its benefit and utility over current legacy systems.

Secure and trustworthy

Due to proven cryptography and the decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies they cannot be managed or manipulated by any one party.

Store of value

Cryptocurrencies are well suited as a store of value because they have a ensured and predictable supply which cannot be switched by any authority or central bank.

Swift, low cost and borderless

Payment with cryptocurrency is swifter and much less expensive than traditional payment solutions.

Total control and ownership

The management and control of cryptocurrencies lies downright with the proprietor, totally independent from any bank or authority.

Spectacle

The gross yield (in %) is based on the total intrinsic value of our portfolio (source : Coin Market Cap) and is intended for comparison purposes only .

The embark date was April 1, two thousand sixteen with a share price of € 1.-, since then the data on this website is being updated every Wednesday.

Past spectacle is no assure of future spectacle.

Expertise, security, spread and transparency

Investing in cryptocurrency is still in its infancy and is therefore not well understood by most people. Because of our expertise we are capable to actively manage a diversified cryptocurrency portfolio. We are primarily focused on long term investment as we believe in blockchain technology and its potential for growth. We only invest in cryptocurrencies that we think are likely to build up in value over time. This expectation is based on the fundamental and technical analysis we apply to each cryptocurrency we invest in.

EXPERTISE

We probe the cryptocurrency market 24/7. Our work consists of doing fundamental and technical analysis, following trends and keeping up with all the latest developments.

SECURITY

The vast majority of our cryptocurrencies are stored in cold storage with multi-signature (held by independent third parties), providing the highest degree of security.

SPREAD

By managing a diversified portfolio, consisting of more than fifty different cryptocurrencies, we are able to effectively reduce the volatility often associated with cryptocurrencies.

TRANSPARANCY

We invest 100% of our capital into cryptocurrencies. Even tho’ the value of these assets does fluctuate, every invested euro is backed by an underlying value in cryptocurrency.

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Infographic: Blockchain Opportunities for Every Industry, Web Strategy by Jeremiah Owyang, Digital Business

Jeremiah Owyang

By Jeremiah Owyang and Jaimy Szymanski

Blockchain technology has the potential to upend the way every industry manages its information and data, not only financial services.

Tho’ most who are familiar with the technology equate it to Bitcoin, opportunities abound in other verticals in effectively storing transaction, customer, and supplier data in a semi-transparent, unchangeable ledger online. Any relationship that depends on third-party maintenance, or those that require numerous data sources to fulfill customer expectations for cohesive practices, can be improved by blockchain applications.

In the latest Crowd Companies market projection report, “The Business Models of Blockchain” ( available to our innovation council members only ), we explore how blockchain technology enables transparency and accountability of assets in every industry through collective, immutable ledgers. These impacts are outlined at a high level in the infographic below. (Click here or on the photo for the hi-res version to share with your networks.)

The potential industry disruptions included in the infographic are:

Legal: “Brainy contracts” stored on the blockchain track contract parties, terms, transfer of ownership, and delivery of goods or services without the need for legal intervention.

Supply Chain: By utilizing a distributed ledger, companies within a supply chain build up transparency into shipment tracking, deliveries, and progress among other suppliers where no inherent trust exists.

Government: Blockchain offers promise as a technology to store individual identity information, criminal backgrounds, and “e-citizenship,” authorized by biometrics.

Energy: Decentralized energy transfer and distribution are possible via micro-transactions of data sent to blockchain, validated, and re-dispersed to the grid while securing payment to the submitter.

Food: Using blockchain to store food supply chain data offers enhanced traceability of product origin, batching, processing, expiration, storage temperatures, and shipping.

Retail: Secure P2P marketplaces can track P2P retail transactions, with product information, shipment, and bills of lading input on the blockchain, and payments made via Bitcoin.

Healthcare: Electronic medical records stored in a blockchain, accessed and updated via biometrics, permit for the democratization of patient data and alleviate the cargo of transferring records among providers.

Insurance: When autonomous vehicles and other wise devices communicate status updates with insurance providers via the blockchain, premium costs decrease as the need for auditing and authenticating data vanishes.

Travel and Hospitality: Passengers store their authenticated “single travel ID” on the blockchain for use in lieu of travel documents, identification cards, loyalty program IDs, and payment data.

Education: Educational institutions could utilize the blockchain to store credentialing data around assessments, degrees, and transcripts.

As part of our research coverage on disruptive technologies, blockchain aligns with our prior research on the Collaborative Economy, where technologies strengthen P2P relationships to bypass central institutions. Additionally, blockchain technologies will be harnessed by autonomous technologies, enabling machine-to-machine transactions.

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Immutable, reliable, secure – A brief history of blockchain security

Immutable, reliable, secure – A brief history of blockchain security

Blockchain tech­nol­o­gy is mar­ket­ed as the Web Three.0 and because of it’s dis­trib­uted struc­ture it wipes out sin­gle points of fail­ure. But does that mean there are no points of fail­ures at all? Let’s look at some impor­tant blockchain hacks / fail­ures from the tech per­spec­tive.

[Remark: This is not about $$$ Bit­coin hacks, where lousy DB imple­men­ta­tions, web appli­ca­tions, key han­dling or sim­ply social engi­neer­ing let to hacked bit­coin exchanges or wal­lets.]

From a tech­ni­cal point of view, the 51% attack is prob­a­bly the most famous one. It’s as sim­ple as obvi­ous – in the­o­ry you need 50% of the net­works hash rate to con­trol the blockchain in the long run. The esti­mat­ed cost of such an attack against the Bit­coin net­work today are 1.Trio bil­lion $.

But for small­er proof-of-work blockchains with less hashrate this is a poten­tial threat. And this attack got suc­cess­ful exe­cut­ed on an Ethereum like blockchain called Kryp­ton. The attack­er rent­ed min­ing pow­er at a cloud­min­ing provider (Nice­Hash) and at the same time start­ed to DDoS exist­ing Kryp­ton ming knots. Now he was able to dou­ble spend Kryp­ton Tokens by sim­ple redo­ing the proof-of-work.

“ This attack may be a “dry run” intend­ed as proof of con­cept before tar­get­ing oth­er Ethereum based blockchains. […] Ethereum based blockchains are being tar­get­ed pre­dom­i­nant­ly because they’re effortless to fork and manip­u­late offline, while being used in con­junc­tion with DDoS attacks.”

After the hack Kryp­ton switched to a “bit­coin-based proof-of-work”, before the core devs dropped the project.

The infa­mous mul­ti­mil­lion DAO hack was enabled due to a clever con­tract bug. The DAO (decen­tral­ized autonomous orga­ni­za­tion) was a wise con­tract con­struct writ­ten in solid­i­ty, a JavaScript sim­i­lar lan­guage. The DAO was basi­cal­ly an invest­ment fund where the busi­ness log­ic was writ­ten in code. So the investors aka token hold­ers can vote for busi­ness projects and get their come back on invest.

One of the fea­tures as a token hold­er was to pro­pose a split of the DAO . This is the way the hack­er start­ed his attack. After the vot­ing peri­od for the pro­pos­al expired, the split exe­cut­ed and a fresh DAO got cre­at­ed, noth­ing spe­cial. While the split­DAO func­tion runs, the tokens of the cura­tor (attack­er) get sent towards the fresh DAO . The func with­drawRe­ward­For gets called dur­ing the func split­DAO as well and attempts to pay out any avail­able invest­ment comebacks. Now the crit­i­cal part! The hack­er called the split­DAO func again before the bal­ances got updat­ed, mean­ing before the func­tion ter­mi­nat­ed. Like this the old DAO again sent tokens towards the fresh DAO . The hack­er repeats this step over and over again.

This way he drained the DAO and cap­tured Three.6 mil­lion ether an equiv­a­lent of $50 mil­lion at this time. The hack led to a hard fork and a split of Ethereum into Ethereum Clas­sic and Ethereum

The Bit­coin net­work is seen as the orig­i­nal blockchain. But since fairly a while the com­mu­ni­ty is strug­gling to get con­sen­sus over the scal­ing prob­lem. One solu­tion is Bit­coin Unlim­it­ed ( BU ), which is a fork of the Bit­coin Core pro­to­col, to increase the block size.

Recent­ly the Bit­coin Unlim­it­ed net­work suf­fered from a crit­i­cal bug that got exploit­ed. Besides increas­ing the block size, BU intro­duced Xtreme Thin­blocks, which helps reduce block size by fil­ter­ing trans­ac­tions, which ini­tial­ly got into the mem­pool. How­ev­er this fea­ture has had at least two crit­i­cal bugs, which got detect­ed and immovable. With the devel­op­ment hap­pen­ing pub­licly on github, some­body took notice of the com­mit and exploit­ed this bug. The bug was a reach­able asser­tion in C++, see the sim­pli­fied code below.

The exploit was just to send a GET_XTHIN with an invalid mes­sage type (see python code). At the time of the attack seven hundred seventy four of six thousand four hundred fifteen knots where run­ning BU , the attack took around five hundred down. The xthin block fea­ture is prob­a­bly to blame for even more down­time in BU knots, see pic­ture below.

This low code qual­i­ty inwards BU gives the scal­ing dis­cus­sion fresh fire and could pos­si­ble determine it.

Bit­coin Unlim­it­ed knots online. Attack occured on 14.March – very first drop in the chart.

In Bit­coin min­ing the use of ASICS is the only eco­nom­i­cal­ly rea­son­able way to go. Bit­main is the thickest pro­duc­er of min­ing ASICS . It is esti­mat­ed that around 70% of the glob­al Bit­coin hashrate comes from Bitmain’s Antmin­ers. At the same time they are oper­at­ing the largest min­ing pool AntPool with around 20% of the glob­al hashrate.

Recent­ly a back­door in the Antmin­er firmware has been dis­cov­ered. The firmware reg­u­lar­ly con­nects to a serv­er con­trolled by Bit­main and trans­mits infor­ma­tion includ­ing the device’s ser­i­al num­ber, MAC address and IP address. Noth­ing spe­cial, since this could just track the dis­tri­b­u­tion of Bitmain’s sales, but the response of the serv­er can dis­able the request­ing min­er, see the code below or on paste­bin (since it got delet­ed on github). Eas­i­est solu­tion is to edit your etc/hosts file and dis­solve auth.minerlink.com to local­host.

Bit­main stat­ed, they built a “remote shut­down back­door” only for test pur­pos­es and won’t use it. More info on antbleed.

Despite claim­ing not to men­tion webap­pli­ca­tion flaws, this one led to a hard fork, so it’s maybe worth men­tion­ing.

Steemit is a social media plat­form based on a blockchain with it’s one cur­ren­cy called steem, to encour­age high-qual­i­ty con­tent. They want to avoid cen­sor­ship and any “face­book-like” mid­dle-man, by being decen­tral­ized. Nev­er­the­less there was a cen­tral vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty regard­ing the face­book and red­dit login inte­gra­tion on the fron­tend, said CEO Ned Scott. This way the hack­er got access to around two hundred sixty accounts and drained $85,000. All the mon­ey got refund­ed, as men­tioned, due to a hard fork, which is fairly effortless to imple­ment in steemit because of their wit­ness­es con­sen­sus mech­a­nism.

Blockchain tech­nol­o­gy is an ongo­ing beta test and you shouldn’t believe the promise of sal­va­tion that blockchain can’t be hacked. There hasn’t been any major flaw / hack that dis­miss­es the core tech­nol­o­gy as a entire. But usu­al­ly nobody sees the black swan com­ing.

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IBM Just Launched Blockchain Beyond Currency

IBM Just Launched Blockchain Beyond Currency

Blockchain networks are employed in the financial sector, in universal basic income (UBI) programs, and even for humanitarian purposes. A number of institutions have begun investing in research and development of other blockchain-based applications, exploring its potential use in various transaction-based industries. Indeed, the technology has the potential to be as disruptive as the internet itself.

IBM witnessed that potential when it introduced IBM Blockchain last year. The purpose of that public cloud service was to give customers the means to build secure blockchain networks. On Sunday, IBM launched its own “Blockchain as a Service,” and it’s the very first enterprise-ready implementation of IBM Blockchain.

The blockchain is based on The Linux Foundation’s open source Hyperledger Fabric. “Think of it as an operating system for marketplaces, data-sharing networks, micro-currencies, and decentralized digital communities,” explains Hyperledger on its website. “It has the potential to vastly reduce the cost and complexity of getting things done in the real world.”

A Blockchain Future

Through Hyperledger, IBM is suggesting a set of cloud-based services to help customers create, deploy, and manage blockchain networks, according to Jerry Cuomo, VP of blockchain technology at IBM. “Some time ago, we and several other members of the industry came to view that there needs to be a group looking after, governing, and shepherding technology around blockchain for serious business,” he told TechCrunch.

However open source, Hyperledger promises to be secure and safe. “Only an Open Source, collaborative software development treatment can ensure the transparency, longevity, interoperability, and support required to bring blockchain technologies forward to mainstream commercial adoption,” they explained. “That is what Hyperledger is about – communities of software developers building blockchain frameworks and platforms.”

To please enterprise users, IBM adds another layer of security services using the IBM cloud. The computing giant also claims that their blockchain network is built around a very auditable way of tracking all activity. This gives administrators a trail they can go after in case something goes wrong, like in the unlikely event that the network could be breached.

IBM’s vision for blockchain isn’t just limited to enterprise use. In 2015, IBM and Samsung introduced a proof-of-concept for a blockchain-based, decentralized Internet of Things (IoT) called Autonomous Decentralized Peer-to-Peer Telemetry (ADEPT). It’s a testament to just how much potential blockchain has. Ultimately, the technology puts digital security and transparency on a entire fresh level, one that we’ll need as we shove further into a future of extreme connectivity.

Related video:

IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

Create your very first blockchain network and commence coding applications

Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

Get a monthly roundup of the best free contraptions, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

Ordinary instructions demonstrate you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

Concepts

Let’s begin with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

Blockchain for business

Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in brainy contracts, also known as chaincode.

Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rock hard, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

A blockchain network for business is collectively possessed and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

The IBM Blockchain Platform

The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

Hyperledger Fabric

To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

Create a blockchain network

With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

  • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
  • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pictures on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric pics on DockerHub

Another local option is to use the Docker pics for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These pictures are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The pictures go through rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these photos.

Option Three: IBM Bluemix Container Service

A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a implement for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

Write and install ordinary chaincode

Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a wise contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

How to develop your very first blockchain app, prompt!

Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

Embark with online samples. Develop and test locally in a finish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

  • Register and enroll members
  • Create channels and join peers to a channel
  • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
  • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
  • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
  • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can shove your application to the IBM Cloud.

Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly instrument to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

Get help and support

There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

  1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

Embark at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

 

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three good ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free instruments and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and commence planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and embark coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free devices, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Plain instructions display you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s embark with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in wise contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rock hard, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively wielded and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pictures on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric pics on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker photos for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These pics are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The photos go through rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these pictures.

    Option Three: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a instrument for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install ordinary chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a clever contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, quick!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Commence with online samples. Develop and test locally in a finish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can shove your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly instrument to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Commence at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three good ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free contraptions and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and commence planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and commence coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free implements, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Ordinary instructions demonstrate you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s begin with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in wise contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rock hard, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively wielded and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pics on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric photos on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker photos for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These photos are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The photos fall under rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these photos.

    Option Three: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a device for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install plain chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a brainy contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, swift!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Begin with online samples. Develop and test locally in a accomplish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can thrust your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly contraption to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Commence at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three superb ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free contraptions and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and begin planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and begin coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free instruments, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Elementary instructions display you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s commence with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in clever contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rigid, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively possessed and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pictures on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric pics on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker photos for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These photos are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The pictures go through rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these photos.

    Option Trio: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a device for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install plain chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a brainy contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, swift!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Commence with online samples. Develop and test locally in a finish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can thrust your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly instrument to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Embark at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three good ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free devices and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and commence planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and begin coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free instruments, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Elementary instructions demonstrate you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s begin with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in brainy contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rigid, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively wielded and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pics on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric photos on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker pics for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These photos are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The pics go through rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these photos.

    Option Trio: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a device for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install plain chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a wise contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, rapid!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Commence with online samples. Develop and test locally in a accomplish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can shove your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly device to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Commence at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three excellent ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free devices and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and begin planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and embark coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free contraptions, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Elementary instructions demonstrate you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s commence with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in clever contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rock hard, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively possessed and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pics on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric pictures on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker pictures for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These pics are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The photos go through rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these photos.

    Option Three: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a contraption for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install elementary chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a clever contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, swift!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Embark with online samples. Develop and test locally in a finish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can thrust your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly device to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Begin at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three excellent ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free contraptions and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and embark planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and embark coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free instruments, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Ordinary instructions demonstrate you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s begin with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in brainy contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage hard, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively wielded and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pics on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric photos on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker pics for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These pics are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The photos go through rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these pics.

    Option Three: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a contraption for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install ordinary chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a wise contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, swift!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Begin with online samples. Develop and test locally in a finish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can thrust your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly device to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Embark at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three superb ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free implements and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and embark planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and embark coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free implements, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Ordinary instructions demonstrate you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s embark with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in clever contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rock-hard, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively wielded and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric photos on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric pictures on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker pictures for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These pics are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The pictures fall under rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these photos.

    Option Three: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a device for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install plain chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a clever contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, prompt!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Begin with online samples. Develop and test locally in a finish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can shove your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly implement to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Commence at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three superb ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free instruments and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and begin planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    IBM Blockchain 101: Quick-start guide for developers

    Create your very first blockchain network and embark coding applications

    Published on October 23, two thousand sixteen / Updated: August 21, 2017

    Get a monthly roundup of the best free instruments, training, and community resources to put Blockchain to work.

    Join the blockchain revolution! This developerWorks quick-start guide is for application developers who are exploring blockchain technology and want to quickly develop a blockchain network and deploy applications.

    Ordinary instructions demonstrate you how to activate a blockchain network based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric framework, write and install chaincode (business logic for the network), and develop client applications to streamline business processes and digital interactions. (Hyperledger Fabric™ is a Hyperledger® project hosted by The Linux Foundation®.)

    Concepts

    Let’s begin with a quick summary a blockchain for business use, the Hyperledger Fabric framework, and the IBM Blockchain Platform.

    Blockchain for business

    Simply put, a blockchain network is a decentralized system for the efficient and secure exchange of business assets. A collective, distributed ledger records an immutable history of asset transactions inbetween members of the network, and catalogs the current state (world state) of those assets. The business rules that govern transactions are encoded in brainy contracts, also known as chaincode.

    Instead of relying on a central authority or trusted intermediary, such as a bank or brokerage rock hard, to validate transactions, members of a blockchain network use a consensus mechanism as a basis of ensuring trust, accountability, and transparency across the network. For extra confidentiality, members join one or more channels that permit for data isolation; a channel-specific ledger is collective across the authenticated peers in that channel.

    A blockchain network for business is collectively wielded and operated by a group of identifiable and verifiable institutions, such as a business or university, for example. It’s a permissioned network, where the participants are known to each other. Blockchain technology underpins the bitcoin network, but the bitcoin network is non-permissioned, which makes it poorly suited to business use cases. It has no identifiable ownership structure and is operated by a community of participants that may or may not be identifiable.

    The IBM Blockchain Platform

    The IBM Blockchain Platform is the only fully integrated enterprise-ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi-institution business network. The Platform is built on the latest Hyperledger Fabric code base, whose modular architecture ensures enterprise-level security, data integrity, scalability, and spectacle.

    Hyperledger Fabric

    To meet the requests of modern markets, IBM and other companies are collaborating to develop an open source, industry-focused implementation of blockchain technology for business use, called Hyperledger Fabric, one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Fabric is a framework for distributed ledger solutions on permissioned networks. Its modular architecture maximizes the confidentiality, resilience, plasticity, and scalability of your blockchain solutions.

    How Hyperledger Fabric supports a blockchain for business

    Create a blockchain network

    With concepts under your belt, the very first step is to create a blockchain network where you can practice developing, testing, and deploying your code. You can create a blockchain network in several ways:

    • Option 1: On your local machine, using the Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub
    • Option Two: On your local machine, using the IBM-certified Hyperledger Fabric pictures on DockerHub, which includes IBM support available for purchase

    Option 1: Hyperledger Fabric code base on GitHub

    One local option is to clone the Hyperledger Fabric code base directly on GitHub and expedite the startup, configuration, and testing process with Docker scripts. Following these instructions will lead to a fully functional blockchain network:

    Option Two: IBM-signed Hyperledger Fabric photos on DockerHub

    Another local option is to use the Docker pics for Hyperledger Fabric that are signed and certified by IBM. These photos are based on the latest Hyperledger Fabric and include enhancements for serviceability. The photos go through rigorous testing for functionality, stability, and spectacle on z Systems and LinuxONE (s390), Power (ppc64le), and x86. Technical support from IBM is available for purchase when using these pics.

    Option Three: IBM Bluemix Container Service

    A cloud-based option is to launch your blockchain network inwards a Docker container. A container is a standard way to package code so it can be moved inbetween environments and run without switches.

    Go after these instructions to set up the IBM Blockchain Platform for Developers on the IBM Container Service. You’ll very first prepare a cluster on the IBM Container Service to deploy to, and then you’ll deploy a default development environment in a single script. The script will bootstrap a blockchain network, join peers to a channel, and launch the Hyperledger Composer playground. The Hyperledger Composer playground is a device for quickly creating, editing, and testing a blockchain network. The hosted version (Online Playground) runs your network in browser memory.

    Option Four: IBM Blockchain Platform

    Another cloud-based option is to activate your blockchain network on the IBM Blockchain Platform. This enterprise-ready blockchain platform makes it effortless to activate and manage a secure business network across numerous organizations. Best of all, it’s powered by open source technology from Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer, paving the way for collaborative application development in your preferred environment.

    Write and install ordinary chaincode

    Chaincode defines the business policy and transactional instructions for creating and modifying assets in a channel’s ledger. Because chaincode typically treats business logic agreed to by members of the blockchain network, chaincode is also called a wise contract. In a Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain, the two terms are synonymous.

    Chaincode runs in a Docker container that is associated with any peer that needs to interact with it. Chaincode is written in Go, and is installed and instantiated through an SDK or CLI onto the network of peers. Whenever you invoke an asset transaction, you’re calling a function in chaincode that reads and writes values to the ledger.

    Option one (Local): Writing and installing chaincode

    These instructions and samples will help you write and install your chaincode on a local blockchain network running Hyperledger Fabric:

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Installing chaincode for a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    You can deploy your chaincode directly to the network through a REST interface:

    Write and deploy client-side applications that invoke chaincode

    How to develop your very first blockchain app, swift!

    Choose your preferred development environment: online, local, or in the cloud!

    Commence with online samples. Develop and test locally in a finish dev environment. Share your blockchain app for collaborative development on the IBM Cloud.

    Once you have a blockchain network with registered chaincode, you can write Knot.js and Java™applications that will invoke chaincode to query or update a channel-specific ledger in your blockchain network.

    The Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs provide a powerful and effortless way to use a library of APIs to enable interaction inbetween your application and your network. Applications that leverage the HFC SDK can be used to perform the following network tasks:

    • Register and enroll members
    • Create channels and join peers to a channel
    • Install chaincode on peers, and instantiate chaincode on a channel
    • Call chaincode functions to update the ledger
    • Query the ledger for specific transactions, blocks, or keys
    • Monitor events on a channel, such as successful commitment of a transaction

    Option one (Local): Writing and deploying client apps locally against a Hyperledger Fabric network

    These instructions and samples will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDKs to write applications that interact with a Hyperledger Fabric network running locally on your machine. If you choose, you can shove your application to the IBM Cloud.

    Option two (IBM Cloud): Writing and deploying client apps to a network created using the IBM Blockchain Platform

    These instructions and sample apps will help you use the Hyperledger Fabric Client SDK APIs to interact with a blockchain network:

    Monitor and manage your network and apps on the IBM Blockchain Platform

    On the IBM Blockchain Platform, a built-in dashboard provides a friendly instrument to keep tabs on your blockchain network and applications. For any channel, you can view the block details, member information, and instantiated chaincode details.

    Get help and support

    There are lots of ways to get support and answers to your questions.

    1. For help with the IBM Blockchain Platform:

    Embark at the Getting support page. From there, the Service status page will help you investigate known issues and find release notes for fresh commits of the Hyperledger Fabric code. And GitHub issues will help you reach the Blockchain development team so you can share details and code snippets from your specific example.

     

  • For general blockchain questions:

    Search dW Answers. Browse questions that have already been asked, or submit a fresh question (include the keyword blockchain).

     

  • For specific Hyperledger Fabric implementation questions:

     

  • For more help with Hyperledger:

    Browse the Hyperledger Channel Guide and join the discussion group suited to your question.

  • Help build the Hyperledger Fabric

    Get involved! Your contribution to the Hyperledger Fabric is welcome. Rocket.Talk is used for communication, and longer running discussions and decisions go to the mailing list.

    Hyperledger Fabric’s maintainers are responsible for reviewing and merging all patches submitted for review. They guide the overall technical direction within the guidelines established by the Hyperledger Project’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC).

    Next steps

    We’ll conclude this quick-start with three superb ways to proceed building your blockchain abilities:

    • Stay in know with the Blockchain Newsletter from developerWorks. Check out the current issue and subscribe.
    • Stop by the Blockchain Developer Center on developerWorks. It’s your source for free implements and tutorials, along with code and community support, for developing and deploying blockchain solutions for business.
    • Take the Blockchain essentials course for developers to learn the ins and outs of asset transfers. At the end of the free, self-paced course, take a quiz, get a badge, and commence planning useful blockchain applications for your business network.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Joshua Horton of IBM for his significant technical contributions to earlier iterations of this material.

    Related video:

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution, ZDNet

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution

    Why would you want to use blockchain to build a database solution? And how would you actually do that? BigchainDB has answers.

    Very first Wall Street, then the database world. While most people are still attempting to wrap their goes around blockchain and its difference from Bitcoin, others are using it in a broad range of domains. Is it hype, a case of having a hammer and eyeing problems as drills, or could blockchain actually have a purpose in the database world?

    BigchainDB’s creators argue there is a reason, and a way, for blockchain and databases to live cheerfully ever after.

    Blockchain technology, put simply, is a type of digital ledger which records transactions, agreements, contracts and sales. The technology is decentralized, which means that information is stored in computers around the world, and is permanently updated in real-time to reflect switches in stock, sales and accounts by bringing records together into blocks before algorithms ‘chain’ these data stores together chronologically.

    Silicon Valley is hot on blockchain — the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency — and its many potrential uses.Blockchain’s economic influence could be as significant as the Internet

    Blockchain was introduced by Bitcoin, which despite its oft discussed issues has illustrated a novel set of benefits: decentralized control, where “no one” possesses or controls the network; immutability, where written data is “forever” tamper-resistant; and the capability to create and transfer assets on the network, without reliance on a central entity.

    The initial excitement surrounding Bitcoin stemmed from its use as a token of value, for example as an alternative to government-issued currencies. Now the separation inbetween Bitcoin and the underlying blockchain technology is getting better understood, the scope of the technology itself and its applications are being extended.

    With this increase in scope, single monolithic blockchain technologies are being re-framed into building blocks at four levels of the stack:

    Two. Decentralized (blockchain) computing platforms

    Three. Decentralized processing (brainy contracts) and decentralized storage (file systems, databases) and communication

    Four. Cryptographic primitives, consensus protocols, and other algorithms.

    Blockchain operations work with data, and that data is also stored as part of the blockchain. For example, when transferring assets from one knot to another, the amounts transferred as well as the sender, receiver, and time of transfer are stored. So the option to leverage the benefits blockchain brings by using it as a database is tempting.

    The problem is, the blockchain as a database is awful, measured by traditional database standards: throughput is just a few transactions per 2nd (tps), latency before a single confirmed write is ten minutes, and capacity is a few dozen GB. Furthermore, adding knots causes more problems: with a doubling of knots, network traffic quadruples with no improvement in throughput, latency, or capacity. Plus, the blockchain essentially has no querying abilities.

    How could that possibly ever work? Trent McConaghy and his co-founders in BigchainDB have tackled this issue by turning it on its head: instead of using blockchain as a database, they are taking a database and adding blockchain features to it. Primarily they began working with RethinkDB, the reason being that RethinkDB leveraged a clean and efficient knot update protocol.

    BigchainDB works by building blockchain features on top of a DB, rather than using blockchain as a DB. Picture: BigchainDB

    Under the spandex hood, BigchainDB utilizes two distributed databases, S (transaction set or “backlog”) and C (blockchain), connected by the BigchainDB Consensus Algorithm (BCA). The BCA runs on each signing knot, with signing knots forming a federation. Non-signing clients may connect to BigchainDB, and depending on permissions they may be able to read, issue assets, transfer assets, and more.

    Each of the distributed DBs, S and C, is an off-the-shelf big data DB. BigchainDB does not interfere with their internal workings, so it gets to leverage their scalability properties, as well as features like revision control and benefits like battle-tested code. Each DB is running its own internal consensus algorithm for consistency.

    At this point BigchainDB has moved towards using MongoDB, and is in fact in a partnership with them. But why MongoDB? It could have been any other open source distributed database. “We did consider a number of DBs, but we desired a document DB to begin with as we’re working with JSON at this point, and MongoDB is an evident choice.”

    But, again, isn’t BigchainDB afraid that combining the well known blockchain with the recently targeted MongoDB could raise numerous crimson flags in terms of security? McConaghy has openly acknowledged that the underlying DB may be a security vulnerability at this point, but is neither critical of MongoDB nor apologetic.

    “MongoDB has been clear about providing ease of access by removing hard security, so it’s not their fault if people left their installations on the internet unsecured. As for us, at this point we are no better or worse than a centralized solution, and we will undoubtedly add improved security features before moving to production,” he says.

    BigchainDB promises blockchain advantages, plus scalability. See also addendum. Pic: BigchainDB

    BigchainDB works by suggesting an API on top of the underlying database, with the aim of acting as a substrate-agnostic layer that adds the key blockchain features of decentralization, immutability, and asset transferability. But that leads to some interesting issues.

    Read this

    Even tho’ it may be the wrong implement for the job, the years of development behind the relational database ensure its popularity — for the moment, says MongoDB’s Max Schireson.

    For example, what if for some reason users would like to use a different database as a substrate? BigchainDB offers a Service Provider Interface that can be used to buttplug in other databases. It is what has been used to integrate and operate on top of MongoDB, and according to McConaghy could also be used to do the same with any other database, be it relational or key-store or anything else.

    Of course, that is lighter said than done, and brings up another issue: querying. Albeit BigchainDB’s querying support is not fully operational at this point, the aim is to suggest one unified querying interface over whatever underlying database knots BigchainDB may be using. That is a hard problem to solve, as not all databases have the same query languages or capabilities.

    However, the current trend towards feature convergence in the database world, and in particular the renewed interest and turn to SQL as the standard for querying may suggest a way out of this. Even so-called NoSQL databases like MongoDB suggest SQL capabilities these days, so this is the most promising way forward for BigchainDB as well: a SQL interface.

    At this point, BigchainDB queries are mostly done by directly using MongoDB’s API, but this is a sort of hack that tightly couples BigchainDB to MongoDB, so it is seen as an interim solution that will eventually give way to querying via BigchainDB’s own API.

    As should be evident by now, BigchainDB is not a typical database by any measure. It is also not a typical startup run by a typical founder. McConaghy has a rich background in AI before it was cool and a hacker ethos: “doing AI in the 90s was one of the least popular things one could possibly do, so I certainly didn’t do it for the hype.”

    McConaghy could have been part of the Facebooks of the world had he chosen to, as he has actually turned down such offers. This is not what drives him, and by extension BigchainDB. The drive behind BigchainDB is not getting to a successful exit or IPO, but rather reshaping the internet and the world at large.

    McConaghy believes that centralization leads to concentration of power, citing examples such as social media ownership and control of data or the conundrum that both creators and consumers of art, and content in general, face on the internet.

    This is what McConaghy’s previous venture, Ascribe, was about: helping digital artists transfer ownership of their work to customers. Albeit whether this is indeed applicable to everyday art like music or movies is unclear, Ascribe aims to provide a solution for digital artists with unique creations and collectors that want to own them, and uses decentralization to achieve this. At some point Ascribe’s evolution gave birth to BigchainDB.

    Some might say this is an overly complicated solution, but McConaghy is not one to bashful away from complexity. When asked on his take on Numerai and the criticism that has been voiced towards it for example, he is adamant: “I don’t think it’s overly complicated, on the contrary, I think it’s brilliant, maybe the best combination of blockchain and AI out there. I think they are doing a indeed good job of aligning incentives for founders, employees and users. Think of Facebook, what if it operated on the basis of providing its users a stake in the value it generates? This is what Numerai is doing, and in the process it is bringing a shift in the power structure and creating incentives for cooperation. So it is turning a zero-sum game to a positive-sum game.”

    Where

    So where on that long and winding road is BigchainDB at the moment? Berlin-based BigchainDB has raised a total of five million euros, with a latest series A of three million. It is working in close collaboration with a number of early adopter clients, including the likes of RWE and Internet Archive.

    The Internet Archive, along other organizations such as Open Media or the Human Data Commons Foundation, are also the caretakers of IPDB, or Inter-Planetary DB: a public example of BigchainDB, used to collectively store and manage content in a safe and decentralized way. IPDB has an identically grand vision: its purpose is to be a database for the internet.

    For Internet Archive for example, it would mean moving away from traditional storage technology and towards the decentralized and cooperative storage model that BigchainDB stands for. As Internet Archive is looking into options such as moving its data to Canada to avoid data sovereignty issues, the potential of adding immutability on top of decentralized storage is appealing.

    For RWE on the other arm, the stakes are a bit different. Traditionally, large electrical utilities would connect the energy producers with the energy consumers. Deregulation switches things, as anyone can now connect to anyone. RWE is getting in front of that by exploring several blockchain projects, such as energy exchanges, electrical car charging, and billing.

    BigchainDB has recently released version 0.9, and its roadmap for two thousand seventeen is to reach a stable version 1.0 in the summer and to have fully operational, production-ready open-source and enterprise versions available by the end of the year.

    Whether that purpose is feasible, or whether its grand vision is likely to be achieved remains to be seen. It certainly does not lack in ambition or abilities however.

    Addendum, March 8th 2017: After the article was published, we received the following clarification from Bigchain’s CEO regarding scalability:

    “When we very first released BigchainDB, we gave too strong of an impression that it was *already* doing 1M writes/s whereas that was actually just in the underlying database (RethinkDB at the time), tho’ we had designed the algorithm such that BigchainDB could eventually hit that (after more hardening and optimizations).

    After feedback, we revised things to set a more adequate expectation: *towards* 1M writes/s. And we also discovered that users didn’t care as much about that benefit compared to other benefits, like high capacity and usability; so we spent more of our resources towards user asks than towards 1M writes/s so far. (That is however still in the roadmap; it’s just not a priority).

    I wrote a blog post last May describing this journey; including an apology for setting the wrong expectations; and a commitment to be better about it, which I’m proud to say we’ve kept. It was the very first time in my career that I’d had misaligned expectations compared to what I was shipping; never again! :)”

    Digital Transformation, a CXO’s Guide:

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution, ZDNet

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution

    Why would you want to use blockchain to build a database solution? And how would you actually do that? BigchainDB has answers.

    Very first Wall Street, then the database world. While most people are still attempting to wrap their goes around blockchain and its difference from Bitcoin, others are using it in a broad range of domains. Is it hype, a case of having a hammer and watching problems as plumbs, or could blockchain actually have a purpose in the database world?

    BigchainDB’s creators argue there is a reason, and a way, for blockchain and databases to live gladfully ever after.

    Blockchain technology, put simply, is a type of digital ledger which records transactions, agreements, contracts and sales. The technology is decentralized, which means that information is stored in computers around the world, and is permanently updated in real-time to reflect switches in stock, sales and accounts by bringing records together into blocks before algorithms ‘chain’ these data stores together chronologically.

    Silicon Valley is hot on blockchain — the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency — and its many potrential uses.Blockchain’s economic influence could be as significant as the Internet

    Blockchain was introduced by Bitcoin, which despite its oft discussed issues has illustrated a novel set of benefits: decentralized control, where “no one” wields or controls the network; immutability, where written data is “forever” tamper-resistant; and the capability to create and transfer assets on the network, without reliance on a central entity.

    The initial excitement surrounding Bitcoin stemmed from its use as a token of value, for example as an alternative to government-issued currencies. Now the separation inbetween Bitcoin and the underlying blockchain technology is getting better understood, the scope of the technology itself and its applications are being extended.

    With this increase in scope, single monolithic blockchain technologies are being re-framed into building blocks at four levels of the stack:

    Two. Decentralized (blockchain) computing platforms

    Trio. Decentralized processing (wise contracts) and decentralized storage (file systems, databases) and communication

    Four. Cryptographic primitives, consensus protocols, and other algorithms.

    Blockchain operations work with data, and that data is also stored as part of the blockchain. For example, when transferring assets from one knot to another, the amounts transferred as well as the sender, receiver, and time of transfer are stored. So the option to leverage the benefits blockchain brings by using it as a database is tempting.

    The problem is, the blockchain as a database is awful, measured by traditional database standards: throughput is just a few transactions per 2nd (tps), latency before a single confirmed write is ten minutes, and capacity is a few dozen GB. Furthermore, adding knots causes more problems: with a doubling of knots, network traffic quadruples with no improvement in throughput, latency, or capacity. Plus, the blockchain essentially has no querying abilities.

    How could that possibly ever work? Trent McConaghy and his co-founders in BigchainDB have tackled this issue by turning it on its head: instead of using blockchain as a database, they are taking a database and adding blockchain features to it. Primarily they embarked working with RethinkDB, the reason being that RethinkDB leveraged a clean and efficient knot update protocol.

    BigchainDB works by building blockchain features on top of a DB, rather than using blockchain as a DB. Pic: BigchainDB

    Under the spandex hood, BigchainDB utilizes two distributed databases, S (transaction set or “backlog”) and C (blockchain), connected by the BigchainDB Consensus Algorithm (BCA). The BCA runs on each signing knot, with signing knots forming a federation. Non-signing clients may connect to BigchainDB, and depending on permissions they may be able to read, issue assets, transfer assets, and more.

    Each of the distributed DBs, S and C, is an off-the-shelf big data DB. BigchainDB does not interfere with their internal workings, so it gets to leverage their scalability properties, as well as features like revision control and benefits like battle-tested code. Each DB is running its own internal consensus algorithm for consistency.

    At this point BigchainDB has moved towards using MongoDB, and is in fact in a partnership with them. But why MongoDB? It could have been any other open source distributed database. “We did consider a number of DBs, but we dreamed a document DB to begin with as we’re working with JSON at this point, and MongoDB is an visible choice.”

    But, again, isn’t BigchainDB afraid that combining the legendary blockchain with the recently targeted MongoDB could raise numerous crimson flags in terms of security? McConaghy has openly acknowledged that the underlying DB may be a security vulnerability at this point, but is neither critical of MongoDB nor apologetic.

    “MongoDB has been clear about providing ease of access by removing hard security, so it’s not their fault if people left their installations on the internet unsecured. As for us, at this point we are no better or worse than a centralized solution, and we will undoubtedly add improved security features before moving to production,” he says.

    BigchainDB promises blockchain advantages, plus scalability. See also addendum. Picture: BigchainDB

    BigchainDB works by suggesting an API on top of the underlying database, with the aim of acting as a substrate-agnostic layer that adds the key blockchain features of decentralization, immutability, and asset transferability. But that leads to some interesting issues.

    Read this

    Even tho’ it may be the wrong implement for the job, the years of development behind the relational database ensure its popularity — for the moment, says MongoDB’s Max Schireson.

    For example, what if for some reason users would like to use a different database as a substrate? BigchainDB offers a Service Provider Interface that can be used to ass-plug in other databases. It is what has been used to integrate and operate on top of MongoDB, and according to McConaghy could also be used to do the same with any other database, be it relational or key-store or anything else.

    Of course, that is lighter said than done, and brings up another issue: querying. Albeit BigchainDB’s querying support is not fully operational at this point, the aim is to suggest one unified querying interface over whatever underlying database knots BigchainDB may be using. That is a hard problem to solve, as not all databases have the same query languages or capabilities.

    However, the current trend towards feature convergence in the database world, and in particular the renewed interest and turn to SQL as the standard for querying may suggest a way out of this. Even so-called NoSQL databases like MongoDB suggest SQL capabilities these days, so this is the most promising way forward for BigchainDB as well: a SQL interface.

    At this point, BigchainDB queries are mostly done by directly using MongoDB’s API, but this is a sort of hack that tightly couples BigchainDB to MongoDB, so it is seen as an interim solution that will eventually give way to querying via BigchainDB’s own API.

    As should be evident by now, BigchainDB is not a typical database by any measure. It is also not a typical startup run by a typical founder. McConaghy has a rich background in AI before it was cool and a hacker ethos: “doing AI in the 90s was one of the least popular things one could possibly do, so I certainly didn’t do it for the hype.”

    McConaghy could have been part of the Facebooks of the world had he chosen to, as he has actually turned down such offers. This is not what drives him, and by extension BigchainDB. The drive behind BigchainDB is not getting to a successful exit or IPO, but rather reshaping the internet and the world at large.

    McConaghy believes that centralization leads to concentration of power, citing examples such as social media ownership and control of data or the conundrum that both creators and consumers of art, and content in general, face on the internet.

    This is what McConaghy’s previous venture, Ascribe, was about: helping digital artists transfer ownership of their work to customers. Albeit whether this is truly applicable to everyday art like music or movies is unclear, Ascribe aims to provide a solution for digital artists with unique creations and collectors that want to own them, and uses decentralization to achieve this. At some point Ascribe’s evolution gave birth to BigchainDB.

    Some might say this is an overly complicated solution, but McConaghy is not one to bashful away from complexity. When asked on his take on Numerai and the criticism that has been voiced towards it for example, he is adamant: “I don’t think it’s overly complicated, on the contrary, I think it’s brilliant, maybe the best combination of blockchain and AI out there. I think they are doing a indeed good job of aligning incentives for founders, employees and users. Think of Facebook, what if it operated on the basis of providing its users a stake in the value it generates? This is what Numerai is doing, and in the process it is bringing a shift in the power structure and creating incentives for cooperation. So it is turning a zero-sum game to a positive-sum game.”

    Where

    So where on that long and winding road is BigchainDB at the moment? Berlin-based BigchainDB has raised a total of five million euros, with a latest series A of three million. It is working in close collaboration with a number of early adopter clients, including the likes of RWE and Internet Archive.

    The Internet Archive, along other organizations such as Open Media or the Human Data Commons Foundation, are also the caretakers of IPDB, or Inter-Planetary DB: a public example of BigchainDB, used to collectively store and manage content in a safe and decentralized way. IPDB has an identically grand vision: its aim is to be a database for the internet.

    For Internet Archive for example, it would mean moving away from traditional storage technology and towards the decentralized and cooperative storage model that BigchainDB stands for. As Internet Archive is looking into options such as moving its data to Canada to avoid data sovereignty issues, the potential of adding immutability on top of decentralized storage is appealing.

    For RWE on the other palm, the stakes are a bit different. Traditionally, large electrified utilities would connect the energy producers with the energy consumers. Deregulation switches things, as anyone can now connect to anyone. RWE is getting in front of that by exploring several blockchain projects, such as energy exchanges, electrified car charging, and billing.

    BigchainDB has recently released version 0.9, and its roadmap for two thousand seventeen is to reach a stable version 1.0 in the summer and to have fully operational, production-ready open-source and enterprise versions available by the end of the year.

    Whether that objective is feasible, or whether its grand vision is likely to be achieved remains to be seen. It certainly does not lack in ambition or abilities however.

    Addendum, March 8th 2017: After the article was published, we received the following clarification from Bigchain’s CEO regarding scalability:

    “When we very first released BigchainDB, we gave too strong of an impression that it was *already* doing 1M writes/s whereas that was actually just in the underlying database (RethinkDB at the time), however we had designed the algorithm such that BigchainDB could eventually hit that (after more hardening and optimizations).

    After feedback, we revised things to set a more adequate expectation: *towards* 1M writes/s. And we also discovered that users didn’t care as much about that benefit compared to other benefits, like high capacity and usability; so we spent more of our resources towards user asks than towards 1M writes/s so far. (That is however still in the roadmap; it’s just not a priority).

    I wrote a blog post last May describing this journey; including an apology for setting the wrong expectations; and a commitment to be better about it, which I’m proud to say we’ve kept. It was the very first time in my career that I’d had misaligned expectations compared to what I was shipping; never again! :)”

    Digital Transformation, a CXO’s Guide:

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution, ZDNet

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution

    Why would you want to use blockchain to build a database solution? And how would you actually do that? BigchainDB has answers.

    Very first Wall Street, then the database world. While most people are still attempting to wrap their goes around blockchain and its difference from Bitcoin, others are using it in a broad range of domains. Is it hype, a case of having a hammer and witnessing problems as tears up, or could blockchain actually have a purpose in the database world?

    BigchainDB’s creators argue there is a reason, and a way, for blockchain and databases to live gladfully ever after.

    Blockchain technology, put simply, is a type of digital ledger which records transactions, agreements, contracts and sales. The technology is decentralized, which means that information is stored in computers around the world, and is permanently updated in real-time to reflect switches in stock, sales and accounts by bringing records together into blocks before algorithms ‘chain’ these data stores together chronologically.

    Silicon Valley is hot on blockchain — the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency — and its many potrential uses.Blockchain’s economic influence could be as significant as the Internet

    Blockchain was introduced by Bitcoin, which despite its oft discussed issues has illustrated a novel set of benefits: decentralized control, where “no one” possesses or controls the network; immutability, where written data is “forever” tamper-resistant; and the capability to create and transfer assets on the network, without reliance on a central entity.

    The initial excitement surrounding Bitcoin stemmed from its use as a token of value, for example as an alternative to government-issued currencies. Now the separation inbetween Bitcoin and the underlying blockchain technology is getting better understood, the scope of the technology itself and its applications are being extended.

    With this increase in scope, single monolithic blockchain technologies are being re-framed into building blocks at four levels of the stack:

    Two. Decentralized (blockchain) computing platforms

    Three. Decentralized processing (brainy contracts) and decentralized storage (file systems, databases) and communication

    Four. Cryptographic primitives, consensus protocols, and other algorithms.

    Blockchain operations work with data, and that data is also stored as part of the blockchain. For example, when transferring assets from one knot to another, the amounts transferred as well as the sender, receiver, and time of transfer are stored. So the option to leverage the benefits blockchain brings by using it as a database is tempting.

    The problem is, the blockchain as a database is awful, measured by traditional database standards: throughput is just a few transactions per 2nd (tps), latency before a single confirmed write is ten minutes, and capacity is a few dozen GB. Furthermore, adding knots causes more problems: with a doubling of knots, network traffic quadruples with no improvement in throughput, latency, or capacity. Plus, the blockchain essentially has no querying abilities.

    How could that possibly ever work? Trent McConaghy and his co-founders in BigchainDB have tackled this issue by turning it on its head: instead of using blockchain as a database, they are taking a database and adding blockchain features to it. Primarily they began working with RethinkDB, the reason being that RethinkDB leveraged a clean and efficient knot update protocol.

    BigchainDB works by building blockchain features on top of a DB, rather than using blockchain as a DB. Pic: BigchainDB

    Under the fetish mask, BigchainDB utilizes two distributed databases, S (transaction set or “backlog”) and C (blockchain), connected by the BigchainDB Consensus Algorithm (BCA). The BCA runs on each signing knot, with signing knots forming a federation. Non-signing clients may connect to BigchainDB, and depending on permissions they may be able to read, issue assets, transfer assets, and more.

    Each of the distributed DBs, S and C, is an off-the-shelf big data DB. BigchainDB does not interfere with their internal workings, so it gets to leverage their scalability properties, as well as features like revision control and benefits like battle-tested code. Each DB is running its own internal consensus algorithm for consistency.

    At this point BigchainDB has moved towards using MongoDB, and is in fact in a partnership with them. But why MongoDB? It could have been any other open source distributed database. “We did consider a number of DBs, but we wished a document DB to begin with as we’re working with JSON at this point, and MongoDB is an visible choice.”

    But, again, isn’t BigchainDB afraid that combining the legendary blockchain with the recently targeted MongoDB could raise numerous crimson flags in terms of security? McConaghy has openly acknowledged that the underlying DB may be a security vulnerability at this point, but is neither critical of MongoDB nor apologetic.

    “MongoDB has been clear about providing ease of access by removing hard security, so it’s not their fault if people left their installations on the internet unsecured. As for us, at this point we are no better or worse than a centralized solution, and we will certainly add improved security features before moving to production,” he says.

    BigchainDB promises blockchain advantages, plus scalability. See also addendum. Picture: BigchainDB

    BigchainDB works by suggesting an API on top of the underlying database, with the aim of acting as a substrate-agnostic layer that adds the key blockchain features of decentralization, immutability, and asset transferability. But that leads to some interesting issues.

    Read this

    Even tho’ it may be the wrong instrument for the job, the years of development behind the relational database ensure its popularity — for the moment, says MongoDB’s Max Schireson.

    For example, what if for some reason users would like to use a different database as a substrate? BigchainDB offers a Service Provider Interface that can be used to cork in other databases. It is what has been used to integrate and operate on top of MongoDB, and according to McConaghy could also be used to do the same with any other database, be it relational or key-store or anything else.

    Of course, that is lighter said than done, and brings up another issue: querying. Albeit BigchainDB’s querying support is not fully operational at this point, the aim is to suggest one unified querying interface over whatever underlying database knots BigchainDB may be using. That is a hard problem to solve, as not all databases have the same query languages or capabilities.

    However, the current trend towards feature convergence in the database world, and in particular the renewed interest and turn to SQL as the standard for querying may suggest a way out of this. Even so-called NoSQL databases like MongoDB suggest SQL capabilities these days, so this is the most promising way forward for BigchainDB as well: a SQL interface.

    At this point, BigchainDB queries are mostly done by directly using MongoDB’s API, but this is a sort of hack that tightly couples BigchainDB to MongoDB, so it is seen as an interim solution that will eventually give way to querying via BigchainDB’s own API.

    As should be evident by now, BigchainDB is not a typical database by any measure. It is also not a typical startup run by a typical founder. McConaghy has a rich background in AI before it was cool and a hacker ethos: “doing AI in the 90s was one of the least popular things one could possibly do, so I certainly didn’t do it for the hype.”

    McConaghy could have been part of the Facebooks of the world had he chosen to, as he has actually turned down such offers. This is not what drives him, and by extension BigchainDB. The drive behind BigchainDB is not getting to a successful exit or IPO, but rather reshaping the internet and the world at large.

    McConaghy believes that centralization leads to concentration of power, citing examples such as social media ownership and control of data or the conundrum that both creators and consumers of art, and content in general, face on the internet.

    This is what McConaghy’s previous venture, Ascribe, was about: helping digital artists transfer ownership of their work to customers. Albeit whether this is indeed applicable to everyday art like music or movies is unclear, Ascribe aims to provide a solution for digital artists with unique creations and collectors that want to own them, and uses decentralization to achieve this. At some point Ascribe’s evolution gave birth to BigchainDB.

    Some might say this is an overly complicated solution, but McConaghy is not one to timid away from complexity. When asked on his take on Numerai and the criticism that has been voiced towards it for example, he is adamant: “I don’t think it’s overly complicated, on the contrary, I think it’s brilliant, maybe the best combination of blockchain and AI out there. I think they are doing a truly good job of aligning incentives for founders, employees and users. Think of Facebook, what if it operated on the basis of providing its users a stake in the value it generates? This is what Numerai is doing, and in the process it is bringing a shift in the power structure and creating incentives for cooperation. So it is turning a zero-sum game to a positive-sum game.”

    Where

    So where on that long and winding road is BigchainDB at the moment? Berlin-based BigchainDB has raised a total of five million euros, with a latest series A of three million. It is working in close collaboration with a number of early adopter clients, including the likes of RWE and Internet Archive.

    The Internet Archive, along other organizations such as Open Media or the Human Data Commons Foundation, are also the caretakers of IPDB, or Inter-Planetary DB: a public example of BigchainDB, used to collectively store and manage content in a safe and decentralized way. IPDB has an identically grand vision: its purpose is to be a database for the internet.

    For Internet Archive for example, it would mean moving away from traditional storage technology and towards the decentralized and cooperative storage model that BigchainDB stands for. As Internet Archive is looking into options such as moving its data to Canada to avoid data sovereignty issues, the potential of adding immutability on top of decentralized storage is appealing.

    For RWE on the other arm, the stakes are a bit different. Traditionally, large electrified utilities would connect the energy producers with the energy consumers. Deregulation switches things, as anyone can now connect to anyone. RWE is getting in front of that by exploring several blockchain projects, such as energy exchanges, electrical car charging, and billing.

    BigchainDB has recently released version 0.9, and its roadmap for two thousand seventeen is to reach a stable version 1.0 in the summer and to have fully operational, production-ready open-source and enterprise versions available by the end of the year.

    Whether that objective is feasible, or whether its grand vision is likely to be achieved remains to be seen. It certainly does not lack in ambition or abilities however.

    Addendum, March 8th 2017: After the article was published, we received the following clarification from Bigchain’s CEO regarding scalability:

    “When we very first released BigchainDB, we gave too strong of an impression that it was *already* doing 1M writes/s whereas that was actually just in the underlying database (RethinkDB at the time), tho’ we had designed the algorithm such that BigchainDB could eventually hit that (after more hardening and optimizations).

    After feedback, we revised things to set a more suitable expectation: *towards* 1M writes/s. And we also discovered that users didn’t care as much about that benefit compared to other benefits, like high capacity and usability; so we spent more of our resources towards user asks than towards 1M writes/s so far. (That is however still in the roadmap; it’s just not a priority).

    I wrote a blog post last May describing this journey; including an apology for setting the wrong expectations; and a commitment to be better about it, which I’m proud to say we’ve kept. It was the very first time in my career that I’d had misaligned expectations compared to what I was shipping; never again! :)”

    Digital Transformation, a CXO’s Guide:

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution, ZDNet

    How to use blockchain to build a database solution

    Why would you want to use blockchain to build a database solution? And how would you actually do that? BigchainDB has answers.

    Very first Wall Street, then the database world. While most people are still attempting to wrap their goes around blockchain and its difference from Bitcoin, others are using it in a broad range of domains. Is it hype, a case of having a hammer and observing problems as ravages, or could blockchain actually have a purpose in the database world?

    BigchainDB’s creators argue there is a reason, and a way, for blockchain and databases to live gladfully ever after.

    Blockchain technology, put simply, is a type of digital ledger which records transactions, agreements, contracts and sales. The technology is decentralized, which means that information is stored in computers around the world, and is permanently updated in real-time to reflect switches in stock, sales and accounts by bringing records together into blocks before algorithms ‘chain’ these data stores together chronologically.

    Silicon Valley is hot on blockchain — the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency — and its many potrential uses.Blockchain’s economic influence could be as significant as the Internet

    Blockchain was introduced by Bitcoin, which despite its oft discussed issues has illustrated a novel set of benefits: decentralized control, where “no one” wields or controls the network; immutability, where written data is “forever” tamper-resistant; and the capability to create and transfer assets on the network, without reliance on a central entity.

    The initial excitement surrounding Bitcoin stemmed from its use as a token of value, for example as an alternative to government-issued currencies. Now the separation inbetween Bitcoin and the underlying blockchain technology is getting better understood, the scope of the technology itself and its applications are being extended.

    With this increase in scope, single monolithic blockchain technologies are being re-framed into building blocks at four levels of the stack:

    Two. Decentralized (blockchain) computing platforms

    Three. Decentralized processing (clever contracts) and decentralized storage (file systems, databases) and communication

    Four. Cryptographic primitives, consensus protocols, and other algorithms.

    Blockchain operations work with data, and that data is also stored as part of the blockchain. For example, when transferring assets from one knot to another, the amounts transferred as well as the sender, receiver, and time of transfer are stored. So the option to leverage the benefits blockchain brings by using it as a database is tempting.

    The problem is, the blockchain as a database is awful, measured by traditional database standards: throughput is just a few transactions per 2nd (tps), latency before a single confirmed write is ten minutes, and capacity is a few dozen GB. Furthermore, adding knots causes more problems: with a doubling of knots, network traffic quadruples with no improvement in throughput, latency, or capacity. Plus, the blockchain essentially has no querying abilities.

    How could that possibly ever work? Trent McConaghy and his co-founders in BigchainDB have tackled this issue by turning it on its head: instead of using blockchain as a database, they are taking a database and adding blockchain features to it. Originally they embarked working with RethinkDB, the reason being that RethinkDB leveraged a clean and efficient knot update protocol.

    BigchainDB works by building blockchain features on top of a DB, rather than using blockchain as a DB. Pic: BigchainDB

    Under the spandex hood, BigchainDB utilizes two distributed databases, S (transaction set or “backlog”) and C (blockchain), connected by the BigchainDB Consensus Algorithm (BCA). The BCA runs on each signing knot, with signing knots forming a federation. Non-signing clients may connect to BigchainDB, and depending on permissions they may be able to read, issue assets, transfer assets, and more.

    Each of the distributed DBs, S and C, is an off-the-shelf big data DB. BigchainDB does not interfere with their internal workings, so it gets to leverage their scalability properties, as well as features like revision control and benefits like battle-tested code. Each DB is running its own internal consensus algorithm for consistency.

    At this point BigchainDB has moved towards using MongoDB, and is in fact in a partnership with them. But why MongoDB? It could have been any other open source distributed database. “We did consider a number of DBs, but we desired a document DB to begin with as we’re working with JSON at this point, and MongoDB is an evident choice.”

    But, again, isn’t BigchainDB afraid that combining the famous blockchain with the recently targeted MongoDB could raise numerous crimson flags in terms of security? McConaghy has openly acknowledged that the underlying DB may be a security vulnerability at this point, but is neither critical of MongoDB nor apologetic.

    “MongoDB has been clear about providing ease of access by removing hard security, so it’s not their fault if people left their installations on the internet unsecured. As for us, at this point we are no better or worse than a centralized solution, and we will certainly add improved security features before moving to production,” he says.

    BigchainDB promises blockchain advantages, plus scalability. See also addendum. Picture: BigchainDB

    BigchainDB works by suggesting an API on top of the underlying database, with the aim of acting as a substrate-agnostic layer that adds the key blockchain features of decentralization, immutability, and asset transferability. But that leads to some interesting issues.

    Read this

    Even tho’ it may be the wrong instrument for the job, the years of development behind the relational database ensure its popularity — for the moment, says MongoDB’s Max Schireson.

    For example, what if for some reason users would like to use a different database as a substrate? BigchainDB offers a Service Provider Interface that can be used to buttplug in other databases. It is what has been used to integrate and operate on top of MongoDB, and according to McConaghy could also be used to do the same with any other database, be it relational or key-store or anything else.

    Of course, that is lighter said than done, and brings up another issue: querying. Albeit BigchainDB’s querying support is not fully operational at this point, the purpose is to suggest one unified querying interface over whatever underlying database knots BigchainDB may be using. That is a hard problem to solve, as not all databases have the same query languages or capabilities.

    However, the current trend towards feature convergence in the database world, and in particular the renewed interest and turn to SQL as the standard for querying may suggest a way out of this. Even so-called NoSQL databases like MongoDB suggest SQL capabilities these days, so this is the most promising way forward for BigchainDB as well: a SQL interface.

    At this point, BigchainDB queries are mostly done by directly using MongoDB’s API, but this is a sort of hack that tightly couples BigchainDB to MongoDB, so it is seen as an interim solution that will eventually give way to querying via BigchainDB’s own API.

    As should be evident by now, BigchainDB is not a typical database by any measure. It is also not a typical startup run by a typical founder. McConaghy has a rich background in AI before it was cool and a hacker ethos: “doing AI in the 90s was one of the least popular things one could possibly do, so I certainly didn’t do it for the hype.”

    McConaghy could have been part of the Facebooks of the world had he chosen to, as he has actually turned down such offers. This is not what drives him, and by extension BigchainDB. The drive behind BigchainDB is not getting to a successful exit or IPO, but rather reshaping the internet and the world at large.

    McConaghy believes that centralization leads to concentration of power, citing examples such as social media ownership and control of data or the conundrum that both creators and consumers of art, and content in general, face on the internet.

    This is what McConaghy’s previous venture, Ascribe, was about: helping digital artists transfer ownership of their work to customers. Albeit whether this is truly applicable to everyday art like music or movies is unclear, Ascribe aims to provide a solution for digital artists with unique creations and collectors that want to own them, and uses decentralization to achieve this. At some point Ascribe’s evolution gave birth to BigchainDB.

    Some might say this is an overly complicated solution, but McConaghy is not one to timid away from complexity. When asked on his take on Numerai and the criticism that has been voiced towards it for example, he is adamant: “I don’t think it’s overly complicated, on the contrary, I think it’s brilliant, maybe the best combination of blockchain and AI out there. I think they are doing a indeed good job of aligning incentives for founders, employees and users. Think of Facebook, what if it operated on the basis of providing its users a stake in the value it generates? This is what Numerai is doing, and in the process it is bringing a shift in the power structure and creating incentives for cooperation. So it is turning a zero-sum game to a positive-sum game.”

    Where

    So where on that long and winding road is BigchainDB at the moment? Berlin-based BigchainDB has raised a total of five million euros, with a latest series A of three million. It is working in close collaboration with a number of early adopter clients, including the likes of RWE and Internet Archive.

    The Internet Archive, along other organizations such as Open Media or the Human Data Commons Foundation, are also the caretakers of IPDB, or Inter-Planetary DB: a public example of BigchainDB, used to collectively store and manage content in a safe and decentralized way. IPDB has an identically grand vision: its objective is to be a database for the internet.

    For Internet Archive for example, it would mean moving away from traditional storage technology and towards the decentralized and cooperative storage model that BigchainDB stands for. As Internet Archive is looking into options such as moving its data to Canada to avoid data sovereignty issues, the potential of adding immutability on top of decentralized storage is appealing.

    For RWE on the other mitt, the stakes are a bit different. Traditionally, large electrical utilities would connect the energy producers with the energy consumers. Deregulation switches things, as anyone can now connect to anyone. RWE is getting in front of that by exploring several blockchain projects, such as energy exchanges, electrical car charging, and billing.

    BigchainDB has recently released version 0.9, and its roadmap for two thousand seventeen is to reach a stable version 1.0 in the summer and to have fully operational, production-ready open-source and enterprise versions available by the end of the year.

    Whether that aim is feasible, or whether its grand vision is likely to be achieved remains to be seen. It certainly does not lack in ambition or abilities however.

    Addendum, March 8th 2017: After the article was published, we received the following clarification from Bigchain’s CEO regarding scalability:

    “When we very first released BigchainDB, we gave too strong of an impression that it was *already* doing 1M writes/s whereas that was actually just in the underlying database (RethinkDB at the time), however we had designed the algorithm such that BigchainDB could eventually hit that (after more hardening and optimizations).

    After feedback, we revised things to set a more adequate expectation: *towards* 1M writes/s. And we also discovered that users didn’t care as much about that benefit compared to other benefits, like high capacity and usability; so we spent more of our resources towards user asks than towards 1M writes/s so far. (That is however still in the roadmap; it’s just not a priority).

    I wrote a blog post last May describing this journey; including an apology for setting the wrong expectations; and a commitment to be better about it, which I’m proud to say we’ve kept. It was the very first time in my career that I’d had misaligned expectations compared to what I was shipping; never again! :)”

    Digital Transformation, a CXO’s Guide:

    Related video:

    How to Run Bitcoin as a Tor Hidden Service on Ubuntu

    How to Run Bitcoin as a Tor Hidden Service on Ubuntu

    Why should you run a Bitcoin hidden service on your knot?

    * It increases the privacy of other Bitcoin users who are anonymizing their deeds via Tor. Specifically, it is a countermeasure to many of the “network observer” attacks listed on the Open Bitcoin Privacy Project’s threat model.

    * It makes your own knot more sturdy against Sybil attacks and network partitions.

    * It doesn’t require much more computational resources to run, just the one-time setup cost of configuring your machine.

    There are several ways that you can configure a Bitcoin knot to connect to Tor that are outlined in the documentation; for the purpose of this guide we are focused on the third option: “automatically listen on Tor.”

    As of Bitcoin Core 0.12, a knot will automatically run a hidden service if it is able to connect to a local Tor daemon. However, we have to make sure that a few things are configured correctly so that the knot and daemon can talk to each other.

    Very first we need to go after the instructions to install Tor. We’ll need to know the codename of the Ubuntu release:

    Now we can install Tor; substitute <codename> with your version.

    Add these two lines to the file and save it:

    Now that Tor is installed and running, check the configuration:

    Ensure that the following lines are (anywhere) in this config file:

    If any of those lines were missing, save the config file and restart the Tor daemon via:

    Now we need to make sure that the linux user that runs the bitcoind process has access to read the tor authentication cookie. You can determine the name of the Tor user via:

    Now modify the user that runs bitcoind on your machine to be a member of the Tor group:

    At this point (just to be safe) you should open a fresh terminal window / SSH session to ensure that the bitcoind user has the correct permissions. In the fresh window, you can check the permissions via:

    If your user is in the tor group, now we can commence bitcoind. Make sure to stop it very first if it’s presently running.

    Now check the bitcoin log to make sure the configuration works:

    You should see output like so:

    If you see this error:

    Then you didn’t configure Tor’s deb repository correctly and accidentally installed tor from Ubuntu’s out-of-date repository. You’ll need to “sudo apt-get eliminate tor” and reconfigure the repository before reinstalling it.

    If you see this error:

    Then your tor-service-defaults-torrc file is misconfigured or you left behind to restart the daemon to make the switches take effect.

    If you see this error:

    Then you did not correctly add the linux user that runs bitcoind to the tor group.

    Otherwise, if everything looks good, visit https://bitnodes.21.co/ and use the “check node” implement to make sure that it’s accepting connections.

    If bitnodes is able to connect, you can optionally click on the green link that shows up for your node’s status, scroll to the bottom of your node’s status page, and input your email address to receive alerts if bitnodes ever has issues connecting to your node’s hidden service.

    Thank you for running a Bitcoin hidden service!

    Related video:

    How to claim Bitcoin Cash (BCC) using the Electron Cash wallet, TechRadar

    TechRadar

    How to claim Bitcoin Cash (BCC) using the Electron Cash wallet

    How to claim Bitcoin Cash

    On August one 2017, around 20% of Bitcoin Miners made the decision to “fork” the Bitcoin (BTC) Blockchain to create a fresh cryptocurrency named “Bitcoin Cash” (BCC).

    This isn’t the very first time that members of the community have created a fresh cryptocurrency based on the Bitcoin Blockchain and it remains to be seen whether BCC will be a big hit or fall by the wayside. You can read a little about Bitcoin Cash and the advantages its supporters feel it offers over regular Bitcoins on the Bitcoin Cash website.

    For now, it’s enough to know that if you possessed any Bitcoins at the time the Blockchain forked, you’re entitled to claim an equal amount of Bitcoin Cash. As the value of the Bitcoin is determined by supply and request you can’t be sure that Bitcoin Cash will have the same USD/EUR/GBP exchange rate but you have nothing to lose by claiming your BCC.

    In this guide we will explore firstly how to stir your existing Bitcoins to a safe place using the excellent, lightweight ‘Electrum’ wallet software. You will then learn how to install the ‘Electron Cash’ wallet. This software is based on Electrum but designed for users who want to hold and spend BCC specifically.

    1. Download Electrum

    In order to redeem your Bitcoin Cash, you’ll need to provide the “Electron Cash” wallet with the existing private keys to your Bitcoin Wallet. This is risky given that both the currency and the software itself is relatively fresh. As such, you’ll need to stir your existing Bitcoins (BTC) to a safe place very first. Open the browser on your machine and navigate to the Electrum website.

    Click the ‘Download’ tab. If you are a Windows user choose the ‘Portable’ version of Electrum. Otherwise choose the version specific to your distro.

    If you happen to use the Electrum wallet software to hold your Bitcoins already, use a different computer or a virtual machine to run these steps.

    Two. Set up Electrum Bitcoin wallet

    If you’re using Microsoft Edge, choose to save the program, then click ‘Run’ when the download is finish. Otherwise dual click to run the program from your Downloads folder.

    Leave the option on the very first window checked to default (auto connect), then click ‘Next’. The next screen will ask you to create a wallet file. Click on ‘default_wallet’ to switch the name to something more memorable such as ‘transition_wallet’ if you wish.

    Click ‘Next’ again and choose your wallet type. Standard Wallet is very likely the easiest. The ‘Keystore’ window will ask if you wish to create a fresh seed. Leave this option checked and click ‘Next’.

    Trio. Manage seed and set a password

    Unlike other Bitcoin wallet programs, Electrum connects to various servers which run a copy of the Bitcoin Blockchain. This makes it very lightweight as it doesn’t have to download its own copy. You can access your wallet on various computer using your ‘seed’, a series of twelve random dictionary words.

    Write down the seed that you see on a chunk of paper and store it somewhere securely. This is crucial to make sure that your Bitcoins are safe. Click ‘Next’ once you’ve done this and retype your seed into the box to confirm you have it noted correctly.

    Click ‘Next’ then (optionally) set a password for your wallet. Electrum will ask for this each time you begin the program the very first time and want to send a transaction.

    Four. Manage Electrum addresses

    Electrum will now generate addresses for your fresh wallet. As soon as it starts click on the ‘Receive’ tab and find a valid address for this wallet where you can receive coins e.g. 16VPngD7CQmAbCb1L4CEzrTnQq8p1VjfeU. Leave Electrum running. Open your original wallet and send all your Bitcoins to this fresh address.

    This is now your fresh Bitcoin wallet and you should use this for all BTC related transactions. Wait until the transaction is confirmed and your old wallet is empty before proceeding. You can use websites such as Blockchain to check the number of confirmations (wait for at least 6).

    Five. Export private keys

    Now that your old wallet software is empty, you will need a list of any private keys it previously used. The Electron Cash software can use these to redeem your Bitcoin Cash.

    The specific steps to do this will vary from wallet to wallet. For example, if you originally used Electrum to hold your Bitcoins, you can click Wallet > Private > Keys export to save them as a list in CSV format. If you used a Bitcoin Paper wallet originally to hold your coins the private key is the long series of digits and numbers along the front.

    6. Download Electron Cash

    Now the time has come to redeem your Bitcoin Cash. Make sure that you’re using a separate computer or virtual machine to the one where your Bitcoin wallets are located.

    In your web browser visit https://electroncash.org. Windows users may see a warning telling the website is unsafe. As your old Bitcoin wallet is empty and you’re using a separate machine, the risk is minimal. Click ‘More Information’ then ‘Disregard and Proceed’.

    Click the ‘Download’ button and then on the version of Electron Cash for your OS. Windows users may see a Windows Defender warning. Click ‘View Downloads’ then ‘Download Unsafe File’ to proceed.

    7. Set up Electron Cash

    Run the Electron Cash program from the folder where you downloaded it. The setup process is very similar to the Electrum wallet. Click on ‘Next’ to choose to ‘auto connect’, then on ‘next again’ to create a default wallet. You can rename this to something meaningful such as ‘bcc_wallet’ if you choose. Click ‘Next’ again.

    On the ‘Keystore’ window choose ‘Use Public or Private keys’, then click ‘Next’. In the box below paste any private keys used by your original Bitcoin wallet. Make sure only to paste the private keys.

    Click ‘Next’ to proceed.

    8. Love your Bitcoin cash

    The Electron Cash software will now generate your addresses and display your balance in BCC at the bottom left. At this stage you may want to tweak the software slightly by clicking on the green network indicator at the bottom right.

    Related video:

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