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What is Blockchain? The Technology Explained

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What is Blockchain? The Technology Explained

2016 was regarded as the ‘coming of age’ of Blockchain and cryptocurrencies, with a big rise in the profile of Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. This year has seen them get a lot of serious attention from the financial sector and some high profile individuals like Russian President Vladimir Putin. One of the reasons is that these virtual currencies have leapfrogged ahead of stocks, bonds and most other investments in their level of comeback.

The price of Bitcoin has tripled since the beginning of the year, rising above US$Three,000 for the very first time, before pulling down back slightly. Ethereum, a not as well known – but quickly growing – cryptocurrency has shown even more dramatic gains. It shot up almost Five,000 percent in June, up to a record price of US$407, before also lodging back down.

The total value of these virtual currencies has grown amazingly too. The market capitalisation shot to more than US$110bn in June, from US$20bn at the beginning of the year. Albeit some financial analysts warn of a crash in cryptocurrencies – along the lines of the dotcom bust – it’s becoming very clear that they are providing a fresh global market for assets similar to stocks, bonds, mutual funds and government-backed currencies.

What are Bitcoin, Ethereum and cryptocurrencies?

Albeit those in the investment and financial services industries are close to the cryptocurrency market and the Blockchain technology they reside upon, most people don’t truly understand what they are and how they work. For more about Fintech visit our previous article ‘Disruption Series: Fintech & The Future of Money’, otherwise, here is a useful summary about cryptocurrencies.

1. This is an online, digital currency – a ‘virtual’ version of money. The name comes from the cryptography used to encrypt transactions and control production of the currency. It is a rigorously monitored process, using Blockchain. It is not issued by any central authority, rendering it theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation.

Two. This technology is a distributed (in different locations) database that’s used to manage and maintain a growing list of data blocks, using a peer-to-peer (P2P network). In a Blockchain, once a chunk of data is recorded, it cannot be edited or switched.

Trio. Cryptocurrency mining. This is the process of creating fresh units of a cryptocurrency. To do this, you need a powerful hardware and software combination. Since the value of a currency depends on the number of units available in the market, this process should be cautiously monitored to make sure the value of the existing units doesn’t depreciate.

Four. Cryptocurrency price. This depends on supply and request. If more people request a specific cryptocurrency and it’s brief in supply its value increases and more units are mined to meet the enhanced request. However, many choose to restrict this number. For example, the number of Bitcoins is presently restricted to a maximum of twenty one million.

Five. Cryptocurrencies list. While there are many cryptocurrencies to buy, here are some of the main ones:

  • Bitcoin. This is the most well known and presently the highest rated cryptocurrency. Interest in the market peaked when its rate surged abruptly earlier this year. To invest in Bitcoins costs about US$Two,500 and it has a market capitalisation of around $42 billion.
  • Ethereum. This cryptocurrency is responsible for diluting Bitcoin’s dominance in the market. Launched in 2015, it is being touted as the cryptocurrency of the future. It is decentralised, secure, and could be used to trade almost anything. Buying Ethereum costs about US$37 and it has a market capitalisation of around $34 billion.
  • Litecoin. This is based on the same common P2P Blockchain system, but with big technical improvements. It has substantially diminished the time for transactions to be finished.
  • Ripple. This cryptocurrency permits banks around the world to directly transact with each other.
  • Dash. Otherwise known as ‘DarkCoin’, this is a very secretive cryptocurrency. It’s almost unlikely for anyone to trace where it has been routed and it is used mainly on the Darknet.

Should I buy Ethereum or invest in Bitcoin?

While the cryptocurrency market is certainly on a bull run, much like the stock market, values can also drop at brief notice. It’s hard to tell whether the current surge is due to historical precedent, a monopoly on investment, or simply an lightly swayed investor pool. Irrespective of the reason, it seems likely that the latest rise of cryptocurrencies will lead to some sort of drop.

However, experts note that while drops in value are likely, they don’t signal an end to cryptocurrency by any means. Brian Kelly, CEO and founder of global investment management stiff BKCM, said recently that Bitcoin is in the very first years of what is likely to be a multi-year bull market. He explained that while there will be corrections, and even crashes along the way, Bitcoin is here to stay.

Interestingly, Blockchain – the technology supporting these digital currencies – may be even more worthy of investment than the cryptocurrencies themselves. A latest Reuters report pointed out that Blockchain – and the underlying technology – is very likely more interesting and has more potential than Bitcoin does itself.

Blockchain technology and digital currencies explained

A key attribute of Blockchain is that it permits digital information to be distributed but not copied. Originally devised for investing in Bitcoins, Blockchain technology is no longer being seen as just an incorruptible ledger of economic transactions, but a record for almost anything of value. Here are some insights from website blockgeeks as to why it holds such promise for the future.

1. Durability and robustness. Blockchain technology is like the Internet, in that it has a built-in robustness. By storing blocks of information that are identical across its network, the Blockchain cannot be managed by any single entity and has no single point of failure. Technology futurist Ian Khan says as revolutionary as it sounds, Blockchain truly is a mechanism to bring the highest degree of accountability. No more missed transactions, human or machine errors, or even an exchange that was not done with the consent of the parties involved. The most critical area where Blockchain helps is to assure the validity of a transaction by recording it not only on the main register but a connected distributed system of registers, all of which are connected through a secure validation mechanism.

Two. Translucent and incorruptible. The Blockchain network lives in a state of consensus; it’s a self-auditing ecosystem where the network reconciles every transaction that happens in ten-minute intervals. Each group of these transactions is referred to as a ‘block. This has two significant results.

Trio. Data is embedded within the network as a entire; by definition it is public.

Four. It cannot be corrupted. Altering any unit of information on the Blockchain would mean using a fat amount of computing power to override the entire network. In theory, this could be possible. In practice, it’s unlikely to happen. Taking control of the system to capture Bitcoins, for example, would also have the effect of demolishing their value.

Five. By design, the Blockchain is a decentralised technology. Anything that happens on it is a function of the network as a entire. Some significant implications stem from this. By creating a fresh way to verify transactions aspects of traditional commerce could become unnecessary. Stock market trades could become almost simultaneous on the Blockchain, for example. Or it could make types of record keeping, like a land registry, fully public. Other areas that could potentially corset Blockchain technology include legal contracts, the sharing economy (think Uber and AirBnB transactions), online shopping, crowdfunding, governance (voting and other polls), file storage, protection of intellectual property and identity management.

Are cryptocurrencies a safe bet? What about the ethics?

However, while Blockchain and cryptocurrencies have the potential to become the future of transactions, there is growing resistance from government and traditional commercial and financial institutions. For example, banks fear money transactions moving online, and in the U.S attempts are being made to stop this. Recently, the U.S Congress submitted a bill to make cryptocurrency illegal on the grounds that it could fund terrorism and corruption.

The anonymous nature of cryptocurrency transactions does make them well suited for a host of illegal activities, such as the purchase of weapons, drugs and other illegal goods, as well as money laundering and tax evasion. And cryptocurrency hasn’t been without controversy, according to website mic.com. Some suggest that by bypassing more established transactional methods, buying cryptocurrencies is somehow contravening the establishment to the detriment of the greater good.

But, despite a rocky commence, including the bankruptcy of Mt. Gox – the world’s largest Bitcoin exchange in two thousand fourteen – buying cryptocurrencies has arguably entered the mainstream. For one, you can actually use it to buy stuff now. Many retailers, like Microsoft and Overstock, have embarked accepting Bitcoin directly, and for the retailers that don’t — notably Amazon — proponents have found a workaround by buying bounty cards with their Bitcoin and making purchases that way.

Numerous stock and commodities exchanges are also now prototyping Blockchain applications for their services, including the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX), the Deutsche Börse (Frankfurt’s stock exchange) and the JPX (Japan Exchange Group). And many observers look to buy cryptocurrencies with the hope that a currency can exist that preserves value, facilitates exchange, is more transportable than hard metals and is outside the influence of central banks and governments.

In brief, mic.com suggests that if you still feel like investing a puny amount of money in cryptocurrency, be sure not to dip into your emergency savings. It’s uncommonly a good idea to buy something when its price is at its all-time high. And reminisce that there are a lot of horses in this race. In addition to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin there’s also Ripple, Namecoin and Peercoin.

If you have some ‘play’ money and want to make a bet on cryptocurrency, you should absolutely feel one hundred percent comfy with the idea of losing all that money. Cryptocurrencies have crashed before, often, and very likely will again in the future. They’re also historically expensive — if you must buy some, you might be served by waiting a bit for prices to drop, so you’re more likely to get a deal.

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The PayPal Moment: When Bitcoin Met Mainstream Payments

blockchain a paypal

Steve Beauregard is serial entrepreneur, co-founder of cryptocurrency payment processing startup GoCoin and chief revenue officer at Bloq.

In this entry in CoinDesk’s “Bitcoin Milestones” series, Beauregard looks back on the day PayPal began accepting bitcoin – providing its stamp of approval to a technology many believed had the potential to disrupt it.

It’s a Monday in Bitropolis, but not just any Monday.

For almost three months, the GoCoin team had kept badly silent on the thickest bitcoin news story in the industry to date. In twelve brief hours, the press embargo would lift, the news would jolt the financial world and GoCoin would be cemented in history alongside BitPay and Coinbase as the startups that ushered one of the world’s largest payment companies into cryptocurrencies.

Yet, on the eve of that very announcement, our inclusion was far from certain.

When I founded GoCoin along with Brock Pierce in mid-2013, we discussed that we may be too late.

BitPay had been suggesting payment services to online merchants for well over a year, touting they had signed up Ten,000 merchants. Coinbase announced they had signed up the very first major retailer, Overstock, to accept bitcoin.

GoCoin had raised a modest seed round and was “goes down” in development while BitPay and Coinbase continued to one up each other with increasingly epic announcements – Gyft, CheapAir, Cherry Galactic and Dell.

It felt like every day GoCoin wasn’t live would mark another major merchant lost to BitPay or Coinbase.

In response, I was putting intense pressure on the development team to compress the Go Live schedule. My system architect, Margot Ritcher, and lead developer, my nephew Kevin Beauregard, agreed we could cut a month out of the schedule if we compromised on the multi-blockchain, multi-coin design. The downside of taking the shortcut, would be a major software rewrite.

As you will see later in the story, taking the extra time to keep the multi-blockchain design proved to be the right decision.

Eventually, in December 2013, GoCoin announced that it was taking donations for the Boys and Ladies Club of Santa Monica. We were eventually in the race, and I ramped up my Series A fundraising efforts. With the price of bitcoin having gone from the $100 to over $1,000 in the previous months, booking VC meetings on Sand Hill Road was never lighter.

In early 2014, GoCoin tightly planted a flag on the cryptocurrency moon by announcing support for litecoin and dogecoin payments. The bitcoin purists lost their minds: “You are ruining bitcoin, altcoins are a joke!” On Reddit, people decreed: “You are scammers taking these scam coins!”

Those were the nicest comments I can publish here.

While the GoCoin team learned to operate the business, I already had $Two.5m committed of our $5m Series A funding with about $1m already in the bank.

But our fundraising efforts came to a screeching halt when news broke that Mt Gox, the largest bitcoin exchange, had been the victim of a major heist where about 25% of all bitcoin in circulation had been stolen.

The entire industry was in a state of shock and chaos, funding options instantly dried up and even those that had committed to our round never funded. My board determined, rather than fight the market, to just close our Series A, which together with the seed capital came to a skinny $1.5m.

Despite the modest raise, GoCoin was still the best funded LA bitcoin startup at the time. We had negotiated a very favorable top floor lease overlooking Santa Monica’s Third Street Promenade.

GoCoin also sublet space to fellow blockchain startups, developers, lawyers, accountants and provided space for meetups and the very first bitcoin ATM in LA.

We named the space ‘Bitropolis’.

In the months that followed, GoCoin gained stable traction with our strategy of supplementing bitcoin payments with other alternative digital currencies.

In many cases, we persuaded early adopters like CheapAir, KnCMiner and eGifter to add GoCoin so as to not “limit their customer to only bitcoin”. We also continued to wiggle things up by announcing Larry Flint’s Hustler brand as a high-profile merchant.

By 22nd September, 2014, the GoCoin directors assembled in offices of embedded Bitropolis attorney Adam Ettinger. Perhaps more importantly than the influence the big announcement would have on financial institutions, we were ultimately getting validation that our naysayers were wrong.

Bitcoin is not “only used by drug dealers”, “a Ponzi scheme” or a “joke”!

Why the emergency meeting? On the eve of the announcement, an email with the heart-stopping subject line “GoCoin AML Compliance” hit my inbox.

At the 11th hour, they are requesting a “total assessment” from our attorney and we had to determine how to react.

The questions were flying around the room, did one of our competitor’s investors pull some strings to knock us out? By “total assessment”, did they want a legal opinion? Were they looking for an excuse to dismiss us? Was this simply a routine checklist and a box remained unchecked?

In the previous months, GoCoin had stealthily worked with engineers, business development, marketing, PR and, of course, the legal department of PayPal. The technical hoops to integrate GoCoin’s payment platform into PayPal’s PaymentHub were trivial compared to the due diligence process.

We had a total legal opinion from a top Isle of Man law rigid. They reviewed our compliance program extensively, requesting we tighten up aspects of our on-boarding procedures and add payment monitoring features. Most importantly, we had to please their legal team that our compliance program was not only solid, but that we were continuing to improve it.

Even with that, BitPay had raised $30m from Index Ventures and Coinbase $25m from A16z. It would not have been surprising for PayPal to throw out our petite scrappy undercapitalized startup.

At 9pm, our attorney sent a cautiously worded “assessment”, but certainly well brief of a legal opinion. The response came back from PayPal: “Thanks. That’s all we needed.”

On the morning of 23rd September, PayPal announced it would begin accepting bitcoin, litecoin and dogecoin payments via GoCoin, and bitcoin payments via Coinbase and BitPay. Within minutes, the price of all three coins spiked.

Reddit was zizzing, and thanks to the superb strategy of my PR queen Amanda Coolong, my phone was ringing off the hook with reporters asking about the GoCoin deal with PayPal.

History was made.

Yet, soon after signing this milestone agreement, parent company eBay announced they were spinning off PayPal. As a result, PayPal’s blockchain ambitions were shoved to the back-burner.

As I reflect on it, in terms of mainstream merchant adoption for online payments, I would have to say late two thousand fourteen to early two thousand fifteen was the very first big peak. At the time, GoCoin was signing up about seven hundred fifty merchants per month, including top brands like MovieTickets.com, Lionsgate Films and Re/MAX.

Even tho’ many of the merchants didn’t get the volume of transactions they had hoped for, their brands were now regarded as innovators.

Bitcoin exchanges and merchant processors were the bitcoin 1.0 trailblazers that brought bitcoin out of the shadows of the dark web and embarked to lift the reputational stain left by Silk Road.

After four years at the helm, I have stepped down as CEO of GoCoin, yet I remain on the board of the parent company. GoCoin has been profitable for almost two years now, and I still believe there is a bright future for the company and blockchain merchant payments. That said, the industry needs to mature in order to see the kind of growth we envisioned back in 2014, and I feel I can affect more switch outside of GoCoin than I can from within.

Recently, I join the Bloq team founded by Matt Roszak and former Bitcoin core developer Jeff Garzik. I’ve always had tremendous respect for both, and I’m thrilled they have welcomed me in as a fucking partner.

My thesis for merchant payments is that the largest and most successful companies will likely implement their own payment systems.

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk strives to suggest an open platform for dialogue and discussion on all things blockchain by encouraging contributed articles. As such, the opinions voiced in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the view of CoinDesk.

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Take a closer look at Blockchain technology (Infographic) – Vox Creative

Take a closer look at Blockchain technology (Infographic)

This feature was produced in collaboration inbetween Vox Creative and Pricewaterhouse Coopers. Vox Media editorial staff was not involved in the creation or production of this content.

There’s been a lot of noise recently about bitcoin, blockchain, and cryptocurrency. Some of it is hype, but some of it points to significant compels in the financial services industry. So what does it all mean?

Let’s commence with some quick definitions. Blockchain is the technology that enables the existence of cryptocurrency (among other things). Bitcoin is the name of the best-known cryptocurrency, the one for which blockchain technology was invented. A cryptocurrency is a medium of exchange, such as the US dollar, but is digital and uses encryption mechanisms to control the creation of monetary units and to verify the transfer of funds.

Blockchain also has potential applications far beyond bitcoin and cryptocurrency. Blockchain is, fairly simply, a digital, decentralized ledger that keeps a record of all transactions that take place across a peer-to-peer network. The major innovation is that the technology permits market participants to transfer assets across the Internet without the need for a centralized third party.

From a business perspective, it’s helpful to think of blockchain technology as a type of next-generation business process improvement software. Collaborative technology, such as blockchain, promises the capability to improve the business processes that occur inbetween companies, radically lowering the “cost of trust.” For this reason, it may suggest significantly higher comes back for each investment dollar spent than most traditional internal investments.

Financial institutions are exploring how they could also use blockchain technology to upend everything from clearing and settlement to insurance.

When a technology moves so quickly, it’s dangerous to sit on the sidelines. We’re watching blockchain stir from a startup idea to an established technology in a little fraction of the time it took for the Internet or even the PC to be accepted as a standard implement. Blockchain technology could result in a radically different competitive future for the financial services industry.

Want to dive a little deeper? Here are four resources to help you better understand these switches and what they mean for both businesses and consumers:

Learn about cryptocurrency — Where it came from, how much consumers know about it and use it, what it will take for the market to grow, and what the regulators think. We also look at how market participants, such as investors, technology providers, and financial institutions, will be affected.

Get up to speed on blockchain — See the innovative uses of blockchain already being implemented by financial institutions and find an overview of the challenges and opportunities that blockchain presents for the industry.

Peek into blockchain’s future — Learn about the trends that will form how blockchain technology will be used and developed. From financial institutions needing to think about protecting their intellectual property to a shakeout in venture capital funding.

Consider the business implications — Examine the potential benefits of this significant innovation. Explore how others might attempt to disrupt your business with blockchain technology, and how your company could use it to leap ahead instead.

© two thousand sixteen PwC. All rights reserved. PwC refers to the US member hard or one of its subsidiaries or affiliates, and may sometimes refer to the PwC network. Each member rigid is a separate legal entity. Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details. This content is for general information purposes only, and should not be used as a substitute for consultation with professional advisors.

This feature was produced in collaboration inbetween Vox Creative and Pricewaterhouse Coopers. Vox Media editorial staff was not involved in the creation or production of this content.

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